All Summer in a Day, Ray Bradbury

Extract I

 

“Ready? … for a look at the hidden sun.”

Question (i): What is suggested in the extract above?

Answer (i): In the above extract the children are getting ready for the moment when the rainfall would stop. They are peering out of huge glass windows for a look at the sun which is hidden, and as predicted by the scientists, was expected to come out of clouds soon. This suggests that these children live somewhere where sight of sun is rare.

Question (ii): The story opens with the question “Ready? What are the characters getting ready for?

Answer (ii): The characters are getting ready for the moment when the rainfall would stop for two hours so that they could go out for a glimpse at the sun and basked in the sunshine.

Question (iii): Why do you think the sun is hidden?

Answer (iii): The story is set on the planet Venus where it rains incessantly and the sky is forever filled with clouds hiding the sun during daytime.

Question (iv): Why are the children peering out?

Answer (iv): The children are peering out of huge glass windows of an underground school building for a look at the hidden sun which is expected to come out of clouds soon.

Question (v): Give an example of a comparison from the extract above. Explain the comparison.

Answer (v): The children are compared with so many roses and so many weeds intermixed together.

The author is comparing the children to roses and weeds, because they are closely bunching together and just like roses and weeds they need sunlight. The author is also hinting that they are not all sweetness and innocence.


Extract II

 

“And this was the way life … it’s stopping! Yes, yes!”

Question (i): What kind of people are there on planet Venus?

Answer (i): A group of school children lived on the planet Venus with their families. They are the children of men and women who had come to Venus from Earth on rockets to set up a civilisation and live out their lives in underground colonies. They were born on Venus and were only two years old when the sun was last seen. They seem excited about appearance of the sun and are looking forward to experiencing sunshine for the first time in their lives.

Question (ii): What does the phrase “rocket men and women” indicate?

Answer (ii): The phrase “rocket men and women” refer to people who had migrated from Earth to Venus in rockets.

Question (iii): What is referred to as the “raining world” why?    

Answer (iii): The planet Venus is referred to as the “raining world” because it rains there incessantly. The sun remains hidden and comes out of cloud for only one hour, once every seven years.

Question (iv): “It’s stopping!, it’s stopping!” What is stopping? What does it tell us about the lives of the characters?

Answer (iv): It has been raining constantly for seven years and the rain was now stopping.

The characters are schoolchildren who are nine years old and do not remember to have seen the sun before. Continuous rainstorms on planet Venus had confined their activities within echoing tunnels of the underground city. Since, the sunshine was a rare occurrence on Venus, children are excited and are looking forward to basking under brilliant sunshine for the first time in their lives.

Question (v): State how the story is based on science fiction.

Answer (v):The story is based on science fiction because it takes place in distant future on planet Venus. Men and women from Earth had gone there in rockets to set up civilization and live out their lives in underground buildings. Also, in reality, Venus is a hot planet with atmosphere consisting mainly of carbon dioxide, clouds of sulfuric acid and trace amounts of water. But in the story it is described as a “raining world” where days are filled with the drum and gush of water.


Chief Seattle’s Speech, Chief Seattle

In 1854, the “Great White Chief” in Washington made an offer for a large area of Indian land and promised a “reservation” for the Indian people. Chief Seattle was an important Native American leader in the middle of the 19th century. He was considered very wise by everyone. It is said that he delivered a heartfelt speech to the governor of the state of Washington. It was a memorable speech because of its recognition of the necessity to preserve the land, an important and timely topic today. A translation of the speech was published in the Seattle Sunday Star newspaper on October 28, 1857.


Extract I

“Yonder sky that has wept tears … greetings of friendship and goodwill.”

Question (i): Who speaks these words? Give the meaning of:

“Yonder sky that has wept tears of compassion upon my people for centuries untold”

Answer (i): These words are spoken by Chief Seattle.

It means that circumstances have been favourable for his people for countless centuries. His tribe has prospered and reached its glory during this period.

Question (ii): Why does the speaker say “tomorrow it may be overcast with clouds”?

Answer (ii): Chief Seattle fears that the day is not far when their race might disappear. Seattle says this because he has to take tough decision of surrendering their land to White people in return for protection from lurking enemy tribes.

Question (iii): Who is the ‘Great Chief at Washington’? What has the Great Chief done to Seattle and his people?

Answer (iii): Seattle believes that George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, is the Great Chief at Washington.

The Great Chief has sent kind greetings of friendship and goodwill to Seattle and his people.

Question (iv): How much are Seattle’s words reliable as far as the Great Chief is concerned?

Answer (iv): Seattle’s words are like stars that never change. Whatever he says the Great Chief at Washington can rely upon with as much certainty as he can upon the return of the sun or the seasons.

Question (v): Briefly state the reaction of Chief Seattle to the greetings sent by the Big Chief at Washington?

Answer (v): Chief Seattle says that Big Chief at Washington was being kind to them for sending greetings of friendship and goodwill, even if he has little need for their friendship in return.


Extract II

“His people are many. … in need of an extensive country.”

Question (i): Compare the number of Chief Seattle’s people with that of the White Chief. How does the narrator illustrate this fact?

Answer (i): Chief Seattle’s people are few and resemble the scattering trees of storm-swept plain, whereas, White Chief’s people are many like the grass that covers the vast prairies.

Question (ii): What message does the White Chief send to the native people?

Answer (ii): The White Chief conveyed the message of buying the land of native people. The natives will have to surrender their land to the White people and have to move away from their ancestor’s land to the land reserved for them.

Question (iii): A little later, how does Seattle describe that his people were numerous once upon a time?

Answer (iii): Seattle says that there was a time in the past when his people covered the land as the waves of a wind-ruffled sea covers its shell-paved floor.

Question (iv): State the message sent by the White Chief to the native people. What is the reaction of Chief Seattle to the message?

Answer (iv): White Chief sent a message expressing his wish to buy the land of the native people and was willing to offer them enough land to live comfortably.

Chief Seattle reacted by saying that the message appeared just, even generous, for the Red Man no longer has rights on their land, and the offer of reservation for native people seemed to be wise as their population was declining and are no longer in need for an extensive country.

Question (v): What happened when the White man began to push the natives Westward? Should the native people take revenge on the White men? Why?

Answer (v): When the White man began to push the natives Westward the impulsive young men of Seattle’s tribe grew angry and launched revengeful action against the White man. White men were more in number and powerful, any attempt at revenge would be futile and wholly self-destructive. Moreover, old men who stay at home in times of war and mothers who have young sons to lose would have lost everything and gained nothing.


Extract III

……


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My Greatest Olympic Prize, Jesse Owens

Jesse Owens was expecting to win gold medals especially in the broad jump event hands down. He was startled to see a tall German boy named Luz Long hitting the pit at almost 26 feet on his practice leaps. Hitler had kept Long under wraps, evidently hoping to win the jump with him. Owens, being a black American, was infuriated by Hitler’s deception and got preoccupied with the thought that if Long won, it would add some new support to the Nazis’ Aryan-superiority theory. Owens fouled twice in his qualifying jumps and was left with one attempt. At this point, the tall German introduces himself as Luz Long and said encouragingly, “You should be able to qualify with your eyes closed”.


Extract I

“I wasn’t too worried about all … of those gold medals.”

Question (i): Which games are referred to in the extract above? Who wasn’t too worried about them?

Answer (i): The Olympic Games were being held in Berlin in the summer of 1936.

Jesse Owens, a black American athlete, had trained hard for the Games and wasn’t too worried about them.

Question (ii): Why were nationalistic feelings high during these Games?

Answer (ii): Hitler had propagated the myth about Aryan-supremacy theory and had childishly insisted that his performers were members of a master race and, therefore, would naturally outperform participants of inferior non-Aryan races. So, the nationalistic feelings were at an all-time high during these Games.

Question (iii): In which game was the speaker expected to win the gold medal? Why?

Answer (iii): In the broad jump event the speaker was expected to win the gold medal because, a year ago, as a sophomore at Ohio State University, he had set a world record of 26 feet 8-1/4 inches.

Question (iv): When the speaker went for his trials, he was startled to see somebody. Whom did he see? What has the speaker said about him?

Answer (iv): The speaker was startled to see a tall boy hitting the pit at almost 26 feet on his practice leaps. He was a German named Luz Long and Hitler had kept him under wraps.

The speaker said that if Long won, it would add some new support to the Nazis’ Aryan-superiority theory.

Question (v): What did Owens do to succeed in the competition?

Answer (v): Owens had trained, sweated and disciplined himself for six years with the Games in mind. He had his eye especially on the running broad jump as he had set a world record a year ago and it was expected of him to win that Olympic event hands down.


Extract II

“A little hot under … was superior and who wasn’t.”

Question (i): Who is the speaker of above lines? What was the speaker preoccupied with?

Answer (i): Jesse Owens, the black American athlete, is the speaker.

Jesse Owens was expecting to win gold medals especially in the broad jump event hands down. He was startled to see a tall German boy named Luz Long hitting the pit at almost 26 feet on his practice leaps. Hitler had kept Long under wraps, evidently hoping to win the jump with him. Owens, being a black American, was infuriated by Hitler’s deception and got preoccupied with the thought that if Long won, it would add some new support to the Nazis’ Aryan-superiority theory.

Question (ii): Give the meaning of:

  • hot under the collar

Answer (a): Jesse Owens was angry because Hitler had kept Luz Long under wraps, evidently hoping to win the jump with him.

  • Der Fuhrer

Answer (b): It is a political title which means leader of the Nazis and refers to Adolf Hitler.

Question (iii): Where was the speaker determined to go? What did he intend to do?

Answer (iii): The speaker was determined to go out to the broad jump tracks.

The speaker was told that Hitler had kept Luz Long under wraps. He was furious about Hitler’s methods to prove Aryan supremacy by any means necessary and resolved to shake the beliefs of Hitler and his master race by outperforming his Nazi opponent.

Question (iv): How did the speaker perform in his trials? Give reason for his unexpected performance.

Answer (iv): The speaker performed poorly and fouled in first two attempts of his qualifying jumps.

The speaker was surprised to see outstanding performance of Luz Long on his practice leaps. This got him preoccupied with the thought of a Nazi winning the gold medal and was driven by anger while initiating his leap, thus fouling twice.

Question (v): What was the Nazis’ Aryan-superiority theory?

Answer (v): Nazis believed that Germans belonged to a master race and called themselves Aryans. They considered themselves genetically superior and were born to rule non-Aryan races. In 1936 Berlin Olympics Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazi party wanted to demonstrate his racial superiority by dominating the Games. Hitler had trained a talented German named Luz Long and kept him under wraps in order to startle the world record holder Owens and win the broad jump event.


Extract III

“Did I come 3000 miles … a fool of myself?”

Question (i): What made the speaker of the extract bitter? Why was he making fouls?

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What is Pronic Number? And More…

In Section B of ICSE 2018 Computer Application paper, a Question of 15 marks was asked. Students were expected to write a Java program to check whether an input number was a Pronic number or not. The actual question appeared in the following form:

Section B, Question 5: Write a program to input a number and check and print whether it is a Pronic number or not. (Pronic number is the number which is the product of two consecutive integers)

Examples: 12=3×4, 20=4×5, 42=6×7

Before getting into programming, let us first develop our understanding of Pronic numbers. Pronic numbers are also called oblong numbers, heteromecic numbers, or rectangular numbers. Examples of first few pronic numbers are: 0, 2, 6, 12, 20, 30, 42, 56, 72, 90, 110, 132, 156. Consider number 12 from examples given in the question above. Factors of number 12 are: 1,2,3,4,6,12 (total six numbers). Out of 6 numbers let us pick a unique pair of numbers which when multiplied together give 12 as result. The pair of numbers would be:

1×12, 2×6, 3×4

Now, carefully examine the factor pairs in light of the definition given in the question. Clearly, there is only one factor pair comprising numbers which are consecutive integers. It is the third pair of factors which contains consecutive integers 3 and 4. All other pairs do not make number 12 Pronic despite being the factor pairs because, on a number line, one does not appear immediately after the other. So, in other words, out of the three factor pairs for number 12 only one factor pair ( i.e. 3 and 4) qualifies number 12 as Pronic.

Now, consider number 27 and find out if it qualifies as Pronic. First, list the factors of 27, which are; 1,3,9,27 (total four numbers). Next, create unique pair of numbers which when multiplied together give 27 as output. The numbers pairs are: 1×27, 3×9. So we have 2 factor pairs for the number in consideration. A quick examination shows that none of the pairs comprises numbers which are consecutive integers.Therefore, we conclude that number 27 does not qualify to be Pronic.

From above exercise we can say that if n is an Integer then result obtained by multiplying it with (n+1) will be a Pronic number. Mathematically, we may write,

Pronic number, n_{p}=n(n+1)

Conversely, as asked in the question above, in order to find out whether a given number is Pronic or not; we need to generate consecutive base integers starting from zero, increment it by one, multiply the new number thus obtained with its base number and thereafter check if the result obtained is equal to the number in question. This step is repeated until the condition is reached and/or until the base integer generated is less that the given number.

Let us write down the statements in the above paragraph in steps for better understanding. It will also insure that we correctly understand the Java code which is presented thereafter.

  1. Store the input number in a variable named x

  2. Take a variable i and assign value zero to it, i.e. i=0

  3. Increment i and assign it to another variable m, i.e. m=i+1

  4. Multiply i with m and assign the result to another variable n_{p} i.e. n_{p} =i\times m

  5. Check if n_{p} = x or not

  6. If step 5 is true then x is Pronic number

  7. Else, if Step 5 is false then increment i by one

  8. Repeat Steps 3 to Step 7 until i < x

Implementation of above steps in Java Programming Language is given below. If you are interested to compile the code and run it on your computer please insure that you have latest BlueJ software installed. You may download BlueJ for Windows 7 or later by clicking this link → Download BlueJ. If you wish to work like a professional Java programmer you may consider using IDEs like Netbeans, Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA.

import java.util.Scanner;

public class CheckPronic {

    public static void main(String args[])
       {
        Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in);
        System.out.print("Input a number : ");
        int x = sc.nextInt();
        int flag = 0;
    
        for(int i=0; i<x; i++)
        {
          int m=i+1;   
          int np=i*m; 

          if(np == x)
            {
                flag = 1;
                break;
            }
        }
         
        if(flag == 1)
        {
            System.out.println(num +" is a Pronic Number.");
        }
        else
        {
            System.out.println(num + " is Not a Pronic Number.");  
        }    
    }
}

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The Little Match Girl, Hans Christian Andersen


The story is about a little girl’s dream and hope. On a cold New Year’s Eve, a poor, young girl tries to sell matches in the street. She is already shivering from cold and starvation, and she is walking barefoot having lost her two large slippers. She is too afraid to go home, because her father will beat her for not selling any matches, and also as the many cracks in their shack can’t keep out the cold wind. The girl takes shelter in an alley. The girl lights the matches to warm herself. In their glow she sees several lovely visions, starting with a warm stove, then a luxurious holiday feast where the goose almost jumps out at her, and then a magnificent Christmas tree and thereafter she happened to see her deceased grandmother.

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Extract I

“It was bitterly cold, snow was … but what good were they?”

Question (i): What was special about the particular evening in the story? What kind of weather was there in the evening?

Answer (i): It was New Year’s Eve, the last evening of the year.

The weather in the evening was bitterly cold and snow was falling.

Question (ii): The girl had the slippers on, but they were of no use. Why?

Answer (ii): The girl was wearing her mother’s slippers when she stepped out of her home. The slippers were of no use to her as they were too big for her tiny feet.

Question (iii): How can you conclude from the story that the girl was poor and dejected?

Answer (iii): The girl belonged to poor family and is evident from the fact that she was walking in snowy winter weather bareheaded and she had been wearing her mother’s slippers which was too big for her feet. Her scanty clothes were not enough to keep her warm. Her house is described to be cold and having nothing but a roof with cracks on the walls allowing cold wind to whistle through them. The girl’s longings for love and affection from her family got reflected in the imaginary visions she experienced, whereas in real life she was afraid of her father who treated her badly. Because of that she felt dejected and in the final vision she pleaded with her late grandmother to take her to heaven.

Question (iv): Why was the girl out in the cold? What prevented her from going back home?

Answer (iv): The girl was sent out in the cold by her father to earn money from selling matches.

All day had passed but she was unable to sell any matches. She was afraid to go home as her father was very strict and had warned her that if she returned home without money he would give her a beating.

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Question (v): How appropriate is the title of the story?

Answer (v): The title of the story “The Little Match Girl” is appropriate as it revolves around a little girl who sells matches. The little girl in the story was sent out by her father in cold and snowy weather to sell matches. She did not have proper clothes to wear; she had to walk bareheaded and barefoot and was trembling with cold and hunger. She was afraid to go home because she could not sell any matches, and therefore, would get a beating from her father. She huddled herself in a corner formed between walls and tried to keep herself warm by lighting the matches, but it was of no avail and she died in the freezing cold.


Extract II

“So the little girl walked … packet of them in her hand as well”.

Question (i): Who is referred to as little girl in the extract above? How did she lose her shoes?

Answer (i): In the above extract a poor match seller is referred to as little girl.

The girl was wearing her mother’s slippers when she stepped out of her home. The slippers were of no use to her as they were too big for her tiny feet. She could not manage to keep them strapped on her feet when she ran across the street so as to escape from two carriages that were being driven terribly fast. While she was running they slipped off from her feet. She could not find one of the slippers and a boy ran off with the other saying he could use it as a cradle when he had children of his own.

Question (ii): Why was the girl carrying matches with her?

Answer (ii): The girl was sent out by her father in the cold and snowy weather to sell matches.

Question (iii): Why does the author describe the girl as “the picture of misery”?

Answer (iii): The poor little girl was moving bareheaded and barefoot in the snowy winter of New Year’s Eve. Her feet had turned red and blue due to extreme cold. Her old apron was stuffed with matches and she was holding a packet of matches in her hand as well. She was hungry and shivering in cold and was walking slowly. The description of the girl as “picture of misery” creates vivid impressions of the little girl, in the mind of the reader, who is suffering intense mental and physical agony.

Question (iv): What tells you that the girl was not only trembling with cold but also with hunger?

Answer (iv): The fact that the girl was walking about the streets on her naked feet which had turned red and blue with frostbite tells us that she was trembling with cold. Moreover, she was also trembling with hunger as she did not have money to buy food. This can be said from the fact that all day had passed but her apron and hand were still stuffed with matches suggesting that nobody had bought any of her matches. Also, nobody took pity on her and gave her a single penny to help her buy some food.

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Question (v): Explain how the story is interspersed with didactic elements.

Answer (v): The story attempts to teach people to show empathy towards people who are poor, especially innocent children. The poor looking girl was almost run over twice by recklessly driven carriages. It was New Year’s Eve and every household was feasting with delicious roasted geese but nobody was kind to offer the little girl food, warm clothes, shelter or buy her matches. The poor little girl was moving on the street trembling with cold and starvation all day but people seemed to have overlooked her. The miserable condition of the girl evokes feelings of compassion strong enough to motivate wealthy people to work towards alleviating the sufferings of the poor.


Extract III

“She tucked her little legs … with straw and rags”

Question (i): Where was the girl sitting? How did she try to warm her fingers?

Answer (i): She was sitting huddled down in a heap in a corner formed by two houses.

She burned a match by striking it on the wall to warm her fingers.

Question (ii): When did the girl feel as if she were sitting before a large iron stove? Why did she feel this way?

Answer (ii): When she burnt the first match by scratching it on the brick wall to warm her fingers, she felt as if she was sitting before a large iron stove which gave her lovely warmth.

The girl was trying to keep herself warm in the small fire produced by the matches. She hoped that the fire would help fight freezing cold by imagining that she was sitting before a large iron stove.

Question (iii): Explain what kind of relationship the girl shared with her father.

Answer (iii): In the terrible cold and snowy weather the girl was sent by her father to sell matches. The girl was unable to sell matches and was afraid of going home because of the fear of being beaten by her father. It shows that her father was not concerned about her welfare and used to ill-treat her.

Question (iv): With reference to the story, bring out the theme of class differentiation.

Answer (iv): The girl’s clothes and her house as having only the roof, through which wind whistled and large cracks were stuffed with straw and rags, indicate that she belonged to the poor class of the society. She was being used as child labour and was looked down upon by others. She imagined beautiful things in the glow of matches she longed for which only rich upper class people enjoyed. She walked in the street in snowy winter trembling with cold and hunger but nobody was kind to her and showed only pity when her frozen dead body was found the next morning. All the experience the girl had, both in reality and imagination, highlights class differentiation in the Victorian society.

Question (v): The children in Victorian society were not only orphaned but also deserted, neglected and abused. Give evidence from the story to prove this statement.

Answer (v): The girl’s father did not have affection for her and abused her. She was not given proper warm clothes and shoes to wear. The little girl was used as a child labour and was sent out in snowy winter to sell matches. She was trembling with cold and hunger but nobody in the street took notice of her. She was not yet home in the evening but it seems that her father was least concerned about her. The condition of the girl shows that children in Victorian society were not only orphaned but also deserted, neglected and abused.


Extract IV

“She struck another … she could see into the room”.

Question (i): What happened when the girl lit the first match?

 

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